Asignaturas de grado
El objetivo de la asignatura es que los estudiantes adquieran un conocimiento básico de los fundamentos de la física del estado sólido aplicados a materiales electrónicos, y de las propiedades electrónicas y ópticas de los semiconductores. La asignatura culmina con la aplicación de dichas propiedades a distintos dispositivos micro y optoelectrónicos, con énfasis en los aspectos del material.
Esta asignatura resulta fundamental para los siguientes objetivos del título:
Obj 1. Conocer y comprender los fundamentos científicos del mundo de los materiales y sus interrelaciones entre la estructura, propiedades, procesado y aplicaciones.
Obj 3. Conocer el comportamiento mecánico, electrónico, químico y biológico de los materiales y saber aplicarlo al diseño, cálculo y modelización de los aspectos de elementos, componentes y equipos.
Ficha de Asignatura: Propiedades de materiales I
Contenidos y Distribución de Tiempo Docente
(LM: Lección Magistral, RP: Resolución de Problemas, LB: Laboratorio, TI: Trabajo Individual, TG: Trabajo en
Grupo, DB: Debate en Aula, VI: Visitas, EV: Pruebas y Evaluaciones, OT: Otros Procedimientos)
Se relacionan a continuación los contenidos de la asignatura y la distribución temporal de su impartición.
La docencia presencial se divide en lecciones magistrales de teoría y problemas (LM), resolución dirigida de
problemas (RP), y pruebas de de evaluación (EV). Habrá también una prueba de evaluación final.
Los alumnos realizarán varios trabajos individuales (TI) y al menos un trabajo en grupo (TG).
Tema Tema (LM) RP EV Trabajo
Introducción (1 h)
- Aplicaciones de los semiconductores: Microelectrónica y
Conceptos básicos de Ciencias de Materiales (4 h)
- Tipos de enlaces en sólidos. Estructura cristalina. Defectos
cristalinos. Crecimiento Czochralski. 1h
Conducción Eléctrica en Sólidos (6 h)
- Teoría clásica: modelo de Drude y resistividad. Regla de
Matthiessen. Efecto Hall. Conducción eléctrica en
semiconductores y no metales.
Teorías de Sólidos (10 h)
- Teoría de orbitales moleculares. Teoría de bandas en sólidos.
Masa efectiva en semiconductores. Densidad de estados.
Distribuciones estadísticas de partículas: Boltzman vs. Fermi-
Dirac. Teoría cuántica de metales. Energía de Fermi. Emisión
termoiónica y dispositivos de tubos de vacío. Fonones.
- Evaluación parcial
Materiales Semiconductores (9 h)
- Semiconductores intrínsecos y extrínsecos. Dopaje.
Conductividad y temperatura. Recombinación de portadores.
Ecuaciones de conducción y difusión. Ecuaciones de continuidad.
Absorción óptica. Piezoresistividad.
Dispositivos Semiconductores (9 h)
- Contacto óhmico y Schottky. El diodo Schottky. Enfriadores
termoeléctricos. La unión p-n. Polarización en directa e inversa.
Curvas I-V. Introducción a dispositivos electrónicos: transistores
bipolares y de efecto campo. Introducción a dispositivos
optoelectrónicos: fotodetectores, diodos emisores de luz, células
- Evaluación final 3h
The Microelectronics Laboratory is the practical complement the course Microelectronics (fourth year, P94). It aims to introduce students to the set of CAD tools usually employed in full-custom design of integrated circuits.
The ultimate goal is the practical realization of a complete design of a relatively complex circuit using commercial CAD tools for full custom design, all of Cadence:
* Layout editing and synthesis: Virtuoso XL
* Design Verification (DRD): Diva
* Extraction of parameters and simulation.
The laboratory will be conducted in pairs in the laboratory of Building B (B-043). Each couple is assigned a turn to choose between morning or afternoon. Each turn is of three hours in principle 10 to 13 h. morning and from 4 to 7 pm.
* Week 1: learning of the icfb tool. Design, simulation and characterization of an inverter.
* Week 2: design, simulation and characterization of two basic cells: 2-input NAND, NOR or similar.
* Week 3: layout editiong, extraction and verification of operation.
* Week 4: sequential circuits. Design and characterization of half register
* Week 5: Design, simulation and characterization of a cell of average complexity (memory cell, flip-flop, etc.).
* Weeks 6, 7 and 8: Implementation of the final practice, design, simulation, characterization and layout of a block chosen as final practice.
The main goal of this laboratory course is the design and implementation of a functional prototype of an embedded system, going through all the phases of the process, from the initial specification of the system, to the writing of the final technical report and the public presentation of the project. The course explores some important concepts already introduced in courses like Digital Electronic Systems and Laboratory of Digital Electronic Systems, approaching the design of embedded systems from an industrial perspective.
The course is based on a common project where each student takes responsibility for the design and implementation of one of its parts. The initial stages of the project, including the system specification, the organization of workpackages and the assignment of the different tasks according to the preferences of each student, take place in parallel with some classes introducing the concepts of embedded system and operating system design and implementation, the available prototyping boards based on ARM microcontrollers, FreeRTOS and GNU/Linux operating systems, the design of Linux device drivers, and the development of C programs for specific applications in embeded systems. For those students in charge of software development within the project, a special hands-on class introducing the development tools available in the lab is also presented.
Once the theoretical foundations of the course have been presented and the project tasks have been assigned, the students start the design and integration of the components of the embedded system, using their imagination and ability to work in teams to overcome the engineering problems (timing, mechanics, cost) that arise during the design of these systems. The course includes weekly or bi-weekly meetings where the students explain the advances achieved and the difficulties encountered, and forecast the expected progress. These meetings are a key aspect in the project development because the students can follow the evolution of the whole project. In addition, these meetings are the basis for the evaluation of the students� work which constitutes a large percentage of the final grade. At the end of the course, the students have to coordinate for the public presentation of their respective contributions within a public presentation of the project, and also for including their work in a common technical report.
1. Embedded systems: Definition of embedded system, advantages and drawbacks.
2. Operating systems: Definition of operating system, advantages and drawbacks. FreeRTOS and Linux operating systems.
3. Development of embedded systems: Environment, materials and tools for the development of embedded systems. Wire wrapping. ARM-based development boards.
4. Development of device drivers: Design and programming of drivers in GNU/Linux systems.
5. Functional prototyping of embedded systems: Design and implementation of a functional prototype. Design of a printed circuit board (optional). Test plan for the prototype.
6. Technical reports and oral presentations: Structure and contents of a technical report. Public presentation of a project.
We will be tackling two blocks in this course: the first one will be more theoretical, more concept-focused; it consists of familiarizing the students with definitions, enterprise strategy and understanding innovation models and concepts, and a second one more practical. This last part is the most important of the course, because it should be the way to assimilate all previous concepts and to put in practice "how to innovate". It will be achieved through an open discussion (professor and students) of a case study on enterprise strategy for technological innovation and the development of several innovation projects in groups of 3-4 students. Basic topics to be covered are:
- Module 1: Innovation: enterprise strategy and definitions
- Module 2: Processes and Methodology
- Module 3: Intelectual Property
- Module 4: Creativity and innovation
- Module 5: Quality and Risk Management
- Module 6: Financing innovation
- Module 7: Socio-political environment for innovation
This course builds on the previous analog electronics courses to study the structure, characteristics and use of analog integrated circuits (ICs) for the design of several Analog Systems. As a required issue of this learning the course will also deal with effects and situations of practical relevance for a successful design (noise, distortion, etc). The focussing of the lectures towards practical and specific systems (power-supply, communications, instrumentation, analog processing of weak signals, actuation, large signal handling, etc.) gives an integrating vision of previous concepts (basic electronics, linear systems, small and large signal, etc.) not often found in programmes of this kind of subjects.
1. Circuits and integrated electronic systems
Microelectronics and complexity.
Design process. Technological alternatives.
2. Building blocks in analog integrated circuits (0.5 credits).
Analog signal processing.
Switches, current sources and current mirrors.
Voltage and current references.
3. Power and Supervisory systems (1 credit)
Regenerative circuits and timers
DC-AC converters: direct converters and PWM systems
Switching power suppl.
Linear power suppl.
Thermal dissipation. Protections and heatsinks
4. Analog systems for communications and instrumentation (1 credit).
Multipliers, modulators and phase detectors.
Voltage controlled oscilators (VCOs).
Phase locked loops (PLLs).
Applications: Modem, frequency synthesis, phase and frequency modulators and demodulators, etc.
5. Weak-signal handling techniques (1 credit)
Low noise design
DC and AC perturbations (offsets, drifts, thermoelectric effects, ground loops, ...)
Chopped Op. Amps and optocoupling
Detection of signals in noisy environments: Lock-in and averaging techniques.
6. Signal acquisition and and actuators (0.5 credits)
High resolution A/D converters
Acquisition systems for PC
Smart power ICs
7. Wideband Analog Systems (1 credit)
Amplifiers for photodetectors. Optoelectronic I C (OEICs)
LED and Laser drivers for optical communicatios
8. Analog Audio Systems (0.7 credits)
Sound, physical characteristics. Accoustics basics
Sound control systems
Power audio stages: distortion.
Many communication or engineering systems are aimed at interacting with human beings, who are the source or destination of the processed information, by means of their sensorial systems, controlled by the nervous system and the brain.
The main objective of this course is the study of the nervous system, including the brain and the sensory systems, in order to simulate and integrate them in electronic systems, with some applications such as prostheses and multisensory interfaces.
In the course we will describe the nervous system and the brain, the auditory, visual, somatic-sensory, smell and taste systems, with the addition of the speech production system that contribute to the interaction between the human being and his environment. Generally, in every lesson we will describe the physiology and functional aspects of the system, in order to proceed with engineering solutions that intend to simulate it, mainly oriented to prosthetic applications.
1. Introduction: Content of the course.
2. The nervous system and the brain
2.1 Fundamentals of information processing in the nervous system
2.2 Functional electrical stimulation and neurorehabilitation
2.3 Brain-Computer communication
2.4 Introduction to nervous system modelling
3. The sensory system
3.1 The auditory system
3.2 The visual system
3.3 The somatic-sensory system
3.4 The smell and taste systems
4. The speech production system
5. Multisensorial user interfaces
5.1 Virtual reality systems
5.2 Aumented and alternative communication
The aim of this laboratory course is to show students how digital electronic circuits are designed in the real world. For that goal, participants in the course will have to cope with CAD tools specially developed to design circuits specified at RTL level, using VHDL as hardware description language.
Students will learn how to describe, simulate and synthesize digital circuits using VHDL as specification language.
The aim of this laboratory course is to apply the theoretical foundations acquired in previous lectures about Electronic Systems and IC Design. For that goal, participants will have to cope with the design and development of a medium complexity digital hardware system.
The laboratory assignments will focus mainly on the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools, which enable the designer to cope with the high complexity of nowadays IC�s through the implementation of the design at high abstraction level using specific hardware description languages.
The subject "Microelectronics" has a twofold purpose. On the one hand, is a natural extension of the subject "Design of Electronic Circuits and Systems", mandatory in the second cycle, such that it allows continuing the training of Telecommunication Engineers who want to pursue a specialty in electronics or a good complement to future software engineers who wish to have a more complete system vision (hardware-software). On the other hand, it is sufficiently close to the interest of the "microelectronic" engineers more focused on technologies, processes and devices, addressing requirements of circuits and systems that make use of these technologies.
Indeed, systems engineers attending this course will deepen into the design aspects of "embedded systems", especially digital (application specific integrated circuits, ASICs "), extending training from predifused networks ("gate arrays") or standard-cell based design to full custom design, and supplementing it with vital issues such as test or encapsulated. The emphasis will be on dealing with methods to facilitate the handling of the inherent complexity of these systems.
As regards the "microelectronic" engineers, this course will provide the next step to the device, which will be the focus of the second cycle of the degree. Thus, an engineer who has a good understanding of processes and devices, can understand in depth how the circuits are made from the devices, their features, models, constraints, etc.. This will provide an excellent complement to their main training, while it expands the professional field.
In short, this course aims to provide future designers of hardware or software systems or microelectronic engineers a vision and covering the design aspects of systems to the physical layout, through their circuits and building blocks, mainly focusing on CMOS technology, which is the most used today for the application circuit design. It will also ensure a basic introduction to structures and technological processes necessary in the work of design of integrated circuits.
1. Electronic integrated circuits and systems. (0.2 crd.)
Microelectronics and complexity
Representation of circuits and systems
Alternatives and trends
2. Basic devices. The MOS transistor and its models. (0.1 crd.)
3. Basic CMOS manufacturing processes. Design Rules. (0.5 crd.)
4. Basic digital circuits. (1.4 crd.)
Static and dynamic logic
Combinational and sequential circuits
Memories and array structures
5. Characterization of the circuit: parameters estimation and their limitations. (0.6 crd.)
Excitation of large capacities
6. Digital subsystems. (0.4 crd.)
7. Timing. (0.6 crd.)
Synchronous circuits and self-timed
Generation and distribution of the clock signal
8. Engineering of the chip. (0.4 crd.)
Floorplan (chip planning)
9. Integrated Circuit Test. Design for test. (1.0 crd.)
Structured techniques: LSSD, scan, macro-test
10. Designing a complex digital system. (0.8 crd.)
La evaluación de la asignatura se realizará a través de un examen escrito de naturaleza marcadamente práctica. En él el alumno, con o sin la utilización de textos de consulta o apuntes según los casos, deberá resolver problemas, diseños o cuestiones basados en los aspectos desarrollados en clase. Asimismo podrá realizar algunos trabajos prácticos o ejercicios de carácter optativo.
The course is intended to offer a panoramic view, as global as possible, of Electronics and its implications on different society environments. The historic way has been adopted to serve as the conductive thread to introduce and analyse different possible approaches to satisfy social needs. Technical developments and their achievements are to be unveiled, but also reasons for technologies giving way to others. Thus, students should realise that knowledge does not end on what can be achieved with a given technique. So important is knowledge of its limits and how can it be replaced as it reaches its zenith. This approach should the student to be accustomed to learn from history lessons and to realise that history ignorance makes sometimes errors to recur. Another lesson to be learned is, as well, that it is frequently the society which determines the way to follow in spite of technical people predictions.
Birth of Telecommunications. Some steps forward in the 18th and 19th centuries (8 hrs)
The beginning of Electronics. The stage of vacuum tubes. First steps. Television development (5 hrs)
The beginning of a new era: Semiconductors and first devices (8 hrs)
The transistor family. Repercussions in communications and related technologies (7 hrs)
Planar Technology: From Microelectronics to Nanoelectronics (10 hrs)
The Microprocessor: way to and success of miniaturization (6 hrs)
Electronic Systems Design (4 hrs)
Electronics in Communications and Computer Science (5 hrs)
The Optics mergence into Elecronics. Antecedents. Previous technologies. Lasers, optical fibres and communications (7 hrs)
Un examen final, en forma de test, en el que se plantean preguntas de carácter conceptual y aplicado, así como de los hitos fundamentales de la Electrónica y las Comunicaciones. A lo largo del curso, cada profesor podrá indicar trabajos que pueden contribuir a la nota final. El primer día de clase se indicarán detalles al respecto.